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basalt

Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt. which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. It is similar to carbon fiber and fiberglass

basalt

Basalt fiber

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 

Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt. which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. It is similar to carbon fiber and fiberglass, having better physicomechanical properties than fiberglass, but being significantly cheaper than carbon fiber. It is used as a fireproof textile in the aerospace andautomotive industries and can also be used as a composite to produce products such as camera tripods.

 

Manufacture

 

Basalt fiber is made from a single material, crushed basalt, from a carefully chosen quarry source and unlike other materials such as glass fiber, essentially no materials are added. The basalt is simply washed and then melted.

 

The manufacture of basalt fiber requires the melting of the quarried basalt rock at about 1,400 °C (2,550 °F). The molten rock is then extruded through small nozzles to produce continuous filaments of basalt fiber. There are three main manufacturing techniques, which are centrifugal-blowing, centrifugal-multiroll and die-blowing. The fibers typically have a filament diameter of between 9 and 13 µm which is far enough above the respiratory limit of 5 µm to make basalt fiber a suitable replacement for asbestos. They also have a high elastic modulus, resulting in excellent specific strength—three times that of steel.

 

Properties

 

The table refers to the continuous basalt fiber specific producer. Data from all the manufacturers are different, the difference is sometimes very large values.

 

Property

Value

Tensile strength

4.84 GPa

Elastic modulus

89 GPa

Elongation at break

3.15%

Density

2.7 g/cm³

 

Comparison:

 

Material

Density
(g/cm³)

Tensile strength
(GPa)

Specific
strength

Elastic modulus
(GPa)

Specific
modulus

Steel re-bar

7.85

0.5

0.0667

210

26.7

A-glass

2.46

3.31

1.35

69

28.0

C-glass

2.46

3.31

1.35

69

28.0

E-glass

2.60

3.45

1.33

76

29.2

S-2 glass

2.49

4.83

1.94

97

39.0

Silicon

2.16

0.206–0.412

0.0954–0.191

   

Quartz

2.2

0.3438

0.156

   

Carbon fiber (large)

1.74

3.62

2.08

228

131

Carbon fiber (medium)

1.80

5.10

2.83

241

134

Carbon fiber (small)

1.80

6.21

3.45

297

165

Kevlar K-29

1.44

3.62

2.51

41.4

28.8

Kevlar K-149

1.47

3.48

2.37

   

Polypropylene

0.91

0.27-0.65

0.297–0.714

38

41.7

Polyacrylonitrile

1.18

0.50-0.91

0.424–0.771

75

63.6

Basalt fiber

2.65

4.15–4.80

1.57–1.81

100–110

37.7–41.5

 

 

 

History

 

The first attempts to produce basalt fiber were made in the United States in 1923 by Paul Dhe who was granted U.S. Patent 1,462,446. These were further developed afterWorld War II by researchers in the USA, Europe and the Soviet Union especially for military and aerospace applications. Since declassification in 1995 basalt fibers have been used in a wider range of civilian applications.

 

Uses

 

·         Heat protection

 

·         Friction materials

 

·         High pressure vessels (e.g. tanks and gas cylinders)

 

·         Load bearing profiles

 

·         Windmill blades

 

·         Lamp posts

 

·         Ship hulls

 

·         Car bodies

 

·         Sports equipment

 

·         Concrete reinforcement (e.g. for bridges and buildings)

 

·         Speaker cones

 

·         Cavity wall ties

 

 

 

 


 

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