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Composite Tanks

Matin technical design company design, manufactur, export and sales different composite tanks.

Composite Tanks

Composite Tanks

 


 

 

Structural Composite

The non-corrosive, cost-effective solution for commercial/industrial water treatment and storage. Structural Composite Pressure Vessels offer fiberglass construction for outstanding performance and durability in harsh chemical enviroments. With capacities up to 1600 gallons and a variety of options, we can tailor a vessel to meet your needs.

Benefits:

  • 100% composite fiberglass construction
  • Outstanding performance and durability in harsh chemical environments
  • Absolutely will not - and cannot - rust
  • Requires little or no maintenance
  • Capacities up to 2500 gallons
  • Materials of construction (Polyethylene inner shell)

Specifications:

  • Safety factor: 4:1

  • Minimum burst at 600psi

  • Tested to 250,000 cycles without leakage

NSF

  • Safety factor: 4:1

  • Minimum burst at 600 psi

  • Tested to 100,000 cycles without leakage

ASME

  • Top/bottom flange

    • Safety factor: 5:1

    • Minimum burst at 750 psi

    • Tested to 33,000 cycles without leakage

  • Side flange

    • Safety factor: 6:1

    • Minimum burst at 900 psi

    • Tested to 100,000 cycles without leakage

 Maximum operating pressure: 150 psi

Maximum operating temperature: 150° F (flanged), 120° F (threaded)


Storage tanks

Storage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases (gas tank) or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold. The term can be used for reservoirs (artificial lakes and ponds), and for manufactured containers. The usage of the word tank for reservoirs is uncommon in American English but is moderately common in British English. In other countries, the term tends to refer only to artificial containers.

In the USA, Storage tanks operate under no (or very little) pressure, distinguishing them from pressure vessels. Storage tanks are often cylindrical in shape, perpendicular to the ground with flat bottoms, and a fixed or floating roof. There are usually many environmental regulations applied to the design and operation of Storage tanks, often depending on the nature of the fluid contained within. Above ground Storage tanks (AST) differ from underground (UST) Storage tanks in the kinds of regulations that are applied.

Reservoirs can be covered, in which case they may be called covered or underground Storage tanks or reservoirs. Covered water tanks are common in urban areas.

Storage tanks are available in many shapes: vertical and horizontal cylindrical; open top and closed top; flat bottom, cone bottom, slope bottom and dish bottom. Large tanks tend to be vertical cylindrical, or to have rounded corners transition from vertical side wall to bottom profile, to easier withstand hydraulic hydrostatically induced pressure of contained liquid. Most container tanks for handling liquids during transportation are designed to handle varying degrees of pressure.

A large Storage tanks is sometimes mounted on a lorry (truck) or on an articulated lorry trailer, which is then called a tanker.

Special feature

Cylindrical fuel Storage tank with fixed roof and internal floating roof. Capacity approx 2,000,000 litres

Since most liquids can spill, evaporate, or seep through even the smallest opening, special consideration must made for their safe and secure handling. This usually involves building a bunding, or containment dike, around the tank, so that any leakage may be safely contained.

Some Storage tanks need a floating roof in addition to or in lieu of the fixed roof and structure. This floating roof rises and falls with the liquid level inside the tank, thereby decreasing the vapor space above the liquid level. Floating roofs are considered a safety requirement as well as a pollution prevention measure for many industries including petroleum refining.

In the United States, metal tanks in contact with soil and containing petroleum products must be protected from corrosion to prevent escape of the product into the environment. The most effective and common corrosion control techniques for steel in contact with soil iscathodic protection.

For refineries

Tanks for a particular fluid are chosen according to the flash-point of that substance. Generally in refineries and especially for liquid fuels, there are fixed roof tanks, and floating roof tanks.

  1. Fixed roof tanks are meant for liquids with very high flash points, (e.g. fuel oil, water, bitumen etc.) Cone roofs, dome roofs and umbrella roofs are usual. These are insulated to prevent the clogging of certain materials, where in the heat is provided by steam coils within the tanks. Dome roof tanks are meant for tanks having slightly higher storage pressure than that of atmosphere (e.g. slop oil).
  2. Floating roof tanks are broadly divided into external floating roof tanks (usually called floating roof tanks: FR Tanks) and internal floating roof types (IFR Tanks).

IFR tanks are used for liquids with low flash-points (e.g., ATF, MS. gasoline, ethanol). These tanks are nothing but cone roof tanks with a floating roof inside which travels up and down along with the liquid level. This floating roof traps the vapor from low flash-point fuels. Floating roofs are supported with legs or cables on which they rest. FR tanks do not have a fixed roof (it is open in the top) and has a floating roof only. Medium flash point liquids such as naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and crude oil are stored in these tanks.

One of the common types found in mining areas is the open roof type tank, usually to store ore slurries. These are the easiest Storage tanks to build.

Other classifications which can be made for Storage tanks are based upon their location in a refinery:

  • COT- crude oil tankages
  • PIT- product and intermediate Storage tanksages
  • DISPATCH- dispatch area tankages
  • UTILITIES- tanks made in the power plant area, for storage water etc.
  • OSBL tanks- the first 3 types come under out side battery limit tankages
  • ISBL tanks- these are usually mini tanks which are found in the production units of a refinery (as neutralisation tanks, water tanks etc.)

As flash-points of fuels go very low the tanks are usually spherical (known as spheres), tom store LPG, hydrogen, hexane, nitrogen, oxygen etc.

Other types of tanks

Atmospheric

An atmospheric tank is a container for holding a liquid at atmospheric pressure. The major design code for welded atmospheric tanks are API 650 and API 620. API 653 is used for analysis of in-service storage tanks. In Europe the design code is Eurocode 3 (EN 1993), part 4-2.

High pressure

Horizontal, cylindrical shell, elliptical heads carbon steel pressure vessel

In the case of a liquefied gas such as hydrogen or chlorine, or a compressed gas such as compressed natural gas or MAPP, the Storage tank must be made to withstand the sometimes immense pressures exerted by the contents. These tanks may be called cylinders and, being pressure vessels, are sometimes excluded from the class of "tanks".

Thermal storage tank

One form of seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) is the use of large surface water tanks that are insulated and then covered with earth berms to enable the year-round of solar-thermal heat that is collected primarily in the summer for all-year heating. A related technology has become widespread in Danish district heating systems. The thermal storage medium is gravel and water in large, shallow, lined pits that are covered with insulation, soil and grass.

Ice and slush tanks are used for short-term of cold for use in air conditioning, allowing refrigeration equipment to be run at night when electric power is less expensive, yet provide cooling during hot daytime hours.

Milk tank

In dairy farming a bulk milk cooling tank is a large storage tank for cooling and holding milk at a cold temperature until it can be picked up by a milk hauler. The bulk milk cooling tank is an important milk farm equipment. It is usually made of stainless steel and used every day to store the raw milk on the farm in good condition. It must be cleaned after each milk collection. The milk cooling tank can be the property of the farmer or being rented to the farmer by the dairy plant.

Septic tank

A septic tank is part of a small scale sewage treatment system often referred to as a septic system,. It consists of the tank and a septic drain field. Waste water enters the tank where solids can settle and scum floats. Anaerobic digestion occurs on the settled solids, reducing the volume of solids. The water released by the system is normally absorbed by the drain field without needing any further treatment.

Mobile "storage" tanks

While not strictly a "storage" tank, mobile tanks share many of the same features of Storage tanks. Also, they must be designed to deal with a heavy sloshing load and the risk of collision or other accident. Some of these include ocean-going oil tankers and LNG carriers; railroad tank cars; and the road and highway traveling tankers. Also included are the holding tanks which are the tanks that store toilet waste on RVs and boats.

Materials of construction

While steel and concrete remain one of the most popular choices for tanks, glass-reinforced plastic, thermoplastic and polyethylene tanks are increasing in popularity. They offer lower build costs and greater chemical resistance, especially for storage of speciality chemicals. There are several relevant standards, such as British Standard 4994 (1989), DVS (German Welding Institute) 2205, and ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) RTP-1 which give advice on wall thickness, quality control procedures, testing procedures, accreditation, fabrication and design criteria of final product.

Tank failures

There have been numerous catastrophic failures of Storage tanks, one of the most notorious being that which occurred at Boston Massachusetts USA on January 14, 1919. The large tank had only been filled eight times when it failed, and resulting wave of molasses killed 21 people in the vicinity. The Boston molasses disaster was caused by poor design and construction, with a wall too thin to bear repeated loads from the contents. The tank had not been tested before use by filling with water, and was also poorly riveted. The owner of the tank, United States Industrial Alcohol Company, paid out $300,000 (nearly $4 million in 2012 ) in compensation to the victims or their relatives.

There have been many other accidents caused by tanks since then, often caused by faulty welding or by sub-standard steel. New inventions have at least fixed some of the more common issues around the tanks' seal. However, Storage tanks also present another problem, surprisingly, when empty. If they have been used to hold oil or oil products such as gasoline, the atmosphere in the tanks may be highly explosive as the space fills with hydrocarbons. If new welding operations are started, then sparks can easily ignite the contents, with disastrous results for the welders. The problem is similar to that of empty bunkers on tanker ships, which are now required to use an inert gasblanket to prevent explosive atmospheres building up from residues.




 

 

A water tank is a container for storing liquid. The need for a water tank is as old as civilization, to provide storage of water for use in many applications, drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemicalmanufacturing, food preparation as well as many other uses. Water tank parameters include the general design of the tank, and choice of construction materials, linings. Various materials are used for making a water tank: plastics (polyethylene, polypropylene), fiberglass,concrete, stone, steel (welded or bolted, carbon, or stainless). Earthen pots also function as water storages. Water tanks are an efficient way to help developing countries to store clean water.

History

Stone water tank in a castle courtyard, Saxony, Germany

Throughout history, wood, ceramic and stone have been used as Water tanks. These containers were all naturally occurring and some man made and a few of these tanks are still in service. The Indus Valley Civilization (3000–1500 BC) made use of granaries and water tanks. Medieval castles needed Water tanks for the defenders to withstand a siege. A wooden Water tank found at the Año Nuevo State Reserve (California) was restored to functionality after being found completely overgrown with ivy. It had been built in 1884.

An old-fashioned water tank nearTwentynine Palms, California

Types

Chemical contact tank of FDA and NSF polyethylene construction, allows for retention time for chemical treatment chemicals to "contact" (chemically treat) with product water.

The taanka is used in Rajasthan as a traditional form of rainwater harvesting

Ground water tank, made of lined carbon steel, may receive water from a water well or from surface water, allowing a large volume of water to be placed in inventory and used during peak demand cycles.

Elevated water tank, also known as a water tower, will create a pressure at the ground-level outlet of 1 kPa per 10.2 cm or 1 psi per 2.31 feet of elevation. Thus a tank elevated to 20 metres creates about 200 kPa and a tank elevated to 70 feet creates about 30 psi of discharge pressure, sufficient for most domestic and industrial requirements.

Vertical cylindrical dome top tanks may hold from 200 litres or fifty gallons to several million gallons. Horizontal cylindrical tanks are typically used for transport because their low-profile creates a low center of gravity helping to maintain equilibrium for the transport vehicle, trailer or truck.

A Hydro-pneumatic tank is typically a horizontal pressurized storage tank. Pressurizing this reservoir of water creates a surge free delivery of stored water into the distribution system.

Design

By design a Water tank or container should do no harm to the water. Water is susceptible to a number of ambient negative influences, including bacteria, viruses, algae, changes in pH, and accumulation of minerals, accumulated gas. The contamination can come from a variety of origins including piping, tank construction materials, animal and bird feces, mineral and gas intrusion. A correctly designed water tank works to address and mitigate these negative effects.

A safety based news article linked copper poisoning as originating from a plastic tank. The article indicated that rainwater was collected and stored in a plastic tank and that the tank did nothing to mitigate the low pH. The water was then brought into homes with copper piping, the copper was released by the high acid rainwater and caused poisoning in humans. It is important to note that since the plastic tank is an inert container, it has no effect on the incoming water. Good practice would be to analyze any water source periodically and treat accordingly, in this case the collected acid rain should be analyzed, and pH adjusted before being brought into a domestic water supply system.

The release of copper due to acidic water is monitored may be accomplished with a variety of technology, beginning with pH strips and going to more sophisticated pH monitors, indicate pH which when acidic or caustic, some with output communication capabilities. There is no "linkage" between the plastic tank and copper poisoning, a solution to the problem is easy, monitor 'stored rainwater' with 'swimming pool strips' cheap and available at, swimming pool supply outlets. If the water is too acidic, contact state/county/local health officials to obtain advice and precise solutions and pH limits and guidelines as to what should be used to treat rainwater to be used as domesticdrinking water.

Articles and specifications for Water tank applications and design considerations, the AWWA (American Water Works Association) provides details as required by many states to complete a certification process to insure the quality of water being consumed.

The American Water Works Association is a reservoir of water tank knowledge; the association provides specifications for a variety of water storage tank applications as well as design. The AWWA's site provides scientific resources with which the reader will be able to develop an informed perspective on which to make decisions regarding their water tank requirements.


 

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Matin Technical Design Company: Design, Manufactur and Sale Composite Covers in different Sizes, Composite Manhole Cover, Round Covers, Square Covers, Composite Tank, FRP Tanks, Grp Tank, Cubic GRP Tank, Cylindrical GRP Tank, GRP Septic Tank, Composite GRP Septic Tank, Septic Tanks, Sewage Septic tank, Underground Septic tank, Polyethylene septic tank, Sheet Moulding Compound ( SMC tank ), Water tank, Storage tank, Underground Septic Tanks, Cubic Septic Tank, fat retention tanks, Polyethylene Tank, GRVE Tank, Fiberglass Composite Cover, Fiberglass Tanks, Fittings, Composite fitting, GRP composite fitting, FRP composite fittings, Manholes, GRP Manhole,


 

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Composite Tanks
Matin technical design company design, manufactur, export and sales different composite tanks.
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